Transcriptions | Paulus Kal


These are the transcription and the translation into Modern German of a manuscript by Paulus Kal. It is dedicated to count palatine Ludwig and was written in the second half of the 15th century. It is kept at the Bayerischen Saatsbibliothek in Munich, and on its website one can have a look at a black-and-white version. Due to copyright restraints I can only present the text passages here; empty pages or those which contain images but no text do not show up here.

The transcription

The transcription tries to follow the original as closely as possible. I have not dissolved the letter "v" in either "u" or "v". Abbreviations, duplication characters remain mostly intact - considering the restraints of internet typography. Further diacritical characterslike the letter "y" with a diaeresis are omitted.

The translation

To enable a side-by-side comparison, I have put the translated sections opposite to the transcribed parts. I have endeavoured to transform the Early High German manuscript into a modern language that is easy to understand without being too unjust to the original. Occasionally I took some liberties that hopefully are true to the original meaning and are not too far from the source.

Additionally I want to point to the work of the Gesellschaft für pragmatische Schriftlichkeit who have put an excellent edition about Paulus Kal's manuscripts on their website. Furthermore the American publishing house Chivalry Bookshelf have published a magnificent facsimile edition of the manuscript, edited and commented by Christian Tobler (meanwhile out of print).

Dierk Hagedorn, September 2007


Fighting on horseback

Fighting in harness


Shield and club

Man against woman

Sword and buckler